Trichoderma belongs to the phylum Fungi, Deuteromycotina, Hyphospora, Hyphospora, Arbuscular, and Trichoderma, which are widely present in soil under different environmental conditions. Most Trichoderma can produce a variety of biologically active substances that have antagonistic effects on plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and insects, such as cell wall degrading enzymes and secondary metabolites. Trichoderma can improve the stress resistance of crops, promote plant growth and improve agricultural products. Therefore, it is used in biological control, biological fertilizers and soil amendments. Due to the serious negative impact of chemical pesticides on the environment, Trichoderma has attracted attention.
Figure 1 Trichoderma colony in nature
Trichoderma viride is a strain with high cellulase activity, which can degrade cellulose of crops. Trichoderma viride is a resource-rich antagonistic microorganism, which plays an important role in the prevention and control of plant pathology. It has the dual effects of protection and treatment, and can prevent and treat soil-borne diseases. Trichoderma viride can also prevent root knot nematode diseases in cucumbers and other cucurbitaceae, tomatoes and other solanaceous vegetables. The main mechanism of Trichoderma viride is the production of antibiotics, nutritional competition, microparasitis, cell wall decomposing enzymes, and induction of plant resistance. It can be directly added to fertilizers such as decomposing agents, organic fertilizers, biological fungi.
In the prevention and control of Botrytis, there are mainly the following characteristics:
Trichoderma can inhibit the growth, reproduction and infection of pathogenic bacteria by producing small-molecule antibiotics and large-molecule antibacterial proteins or cell wall degrading enzymes. Trichoderma can produce chitinase, β21,3-glucanase, cellulase and protease to decompose the cell wall of plant pathogenic fungi or secrete extracellular enzymes such as glucosidase to degrade pathogenic bacteria in antibiotics and bacterial parasitism. Antibiotic. At the same time, Trichoderma also secrete antibacterial proteins or lyases to inhibit phytopathogenic fungi infestation.
2. Competitive effect
Through rapid growth and reproduction, Trichoderma can obtain more water and nutrients, occupy space, consume oxygen, etc., so as to weaken and eliminate the Botrytis pathogen in the same habitat.
3. Reparasitic effect
Studies have found that Trichoderma can form Pythium in a specific environment and have a reparasitic effect on Botrytis cinerea. After entering the host hyphae, it forms a large number of branches, which can inhibit the symptoms of Botrytis cinerea.
4. Induced resistance
Trichoderma can induce the host plant to produce a defense response, not only can directly inhibit the growth and reproduction of Botrytis cinerea, but also can induce the crop to produce a self-defense system to obtain disease resistance.
5. Growth-promoting effect
Trichoderma can not only control the occurrence of Botrytis, but also increase the germination rate of seeds, root and seedling length and plant vigor.
The use of Trichoderma in the seedbed can increase the survival rate of nurseries and transplantation, and maintain the healthy growth of seedlings. It is suitable for direct fertilizer addition and spraying of fully water-soluble fertilizer). Trichoderma has a long specific effect period. It does not produce resistance to pesticides, maintaining the better control effect in the high humidity environment.