Since some pathologies, like diabetes, growth or clotting disorders, cannot be yet regularly treated by gene therapy, the administration of functional proteins produced in vitro is required. As both protein extraction from natural producers and chemical synthesis undergo inherent constraints that limit regular large-scale production, recombinant DNA technologies have rapidly become a choice for therapeutic protein production. Recombinant production solves source availability problems, is considered a bio-safe and green process and confers the ability to modify amino acid sequences and therefore protein function, to better adjust the product to a desired function. The spectrum of organisms exploited as recombinant cell factories has expanded from the early predominating Escherichia coli to alternative bacteria, yeasts, insect cells and mammalian cells. However, microbial cells and specially Escherichia coli are still potent protein factories essentially supported by their versatility and cost-effective cultivation.
Bio-pharmaceuticals like antibodies, hormones and growth factors represent about one-fifth of commercial pharmaceuticals. Host candidates of growing interest for recombinant production of these proteins are strains of the genus Bacillus, long being established for biotechnological production of homologous and heterologous proteins. Nearly 400 recombinant protein-based products have been successfully produced and are approved as biopharmaceuticals.
Escherichia coli was the prevalent platform when the biopharmaceutical sector emerged in the 1980s, and it was followed by the implementation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both systems and the associated genetic methodologies exhibit an unusually high versatility, making them adaptable to different production demands. Among various potential cell factories, yeast also has attracted great attention in pharmaceutical protein synthesis due to its unicellular and eukaryotic properties, easy genetic manipulation, fast growth, as well as capability of post-translational modifications.
Recombinant drugs are moving from plain recombinant versions of natural products to more sophisticated protein constructs resulting from a rational design process. On the other hand, the applications of currently available synthetic biology tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 in yeast engineering will further help researchers manipulate yeast strains for high secretory recombinant therapeutic protein production with desired features. All in all, currently available systems and synthetic biology tools can be applied to yeast engineering for improved biopharmaceutical protein production.
Microbiosci, a division of Creative Biogene, provide our customers Escherichia coli and yeast cell factories. Our excellent products include chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, immune checkpoint, metabolic enzymes, metabolic hormones, stem cell proteins. We look forward to working with you now and into the future. If you have any requirements or questions, please don't hesitate to contact us.