Recombinant Interleukin Production

Interleukins (IL), a class of cytokines that mediate communication between cells, play an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and activation. They are particularly important in stimulating immune responses and participating in a variety of physiological and pathological reactions. The first interleukin was identified in the 1970s, chiefly made by leukocytes to act primarily on other leukocytes. And for this reason, they are named interleukins even it is now known that interleukins also are produced by and interact with a host of cells involved both in immunity and many other physiological functions. The role of interleukins in the body is much greater than was initially understood, at least 41 types of interleukins, designated numerically from IL-1 to IL-38, have been identified as of 2019. The growth promoting, growth inhibiting or immunomodulatory activities make interleukins an important adjuvant therapeutic method in malignant diseases like cancer and immune disorders. 

Table 1. List of interleukins and their functions

NameTarget cellsFunction
IL-1T helper cellsCo-stimulation
B cellsMaturation & proliferation
NK cellsactivation
macrophages, endothelium, otherInflammation, small amounts induce acute phase reaction, large amounts induce fever
IL-2activated T cells and B cells, NK cells, macrophages, oligodendrocytesStimulates growth and differentiation of T cell response. Can be used in immunotherapy to treat cancer or suppressed for transplant patients and raise CD4 counts in HIV positive patients.
IL-3hematopoietic stem cellsDifferentiation and proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells to e.g. erythrocytes, granulocytes
mast cellsGrowth and histamine release
IL-4activated B cellsProliferation and differentiation, IgG1 and IgE synthesis. Important role in allergic response (IgE)
T cellsProliferation
endotheliumIncrease expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) promoting adhesion of lymphocytes.
IL-5eosinophilsProduction
B cellsDifferentiation, IgA production
IL-6activated B cellsDifferentiation into plasma cells
plasma cellsAntibody secretion
hematopoietic stem cellsDifferentiation
T cells, othersInduces acute phase reaction, hematopoiesis, differentiation, inflammation
IL-7pre/pro-B cell, pre/pro-T cell, NK cellsDifferentiation and proliferation of lymphoid progenitor cells, involved in B, T, and NK cell survival, development, and homeostasis, increases proinflammatory cytokines
IL-8neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytesNeutrophil chemotaxis
IL-9T cells, B cellsPotentiates IgM, IgG, IgE, stimulates mast cells
IL-10macrophagesCytokine production
B cellsActivation
Th1 cellsInhibits Th1 cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF-β, IL-2)
Th2 cellsStimulation
IL-11bone marrow stromaAcute phase protein production, osteoclast formation
IL-12activated T cells,Differentiation into Cytotoxic T cells with IL-2, increases IFN-γ, TNF-α, reduces IL-10
NK cellsIncreases IFN-γ, TNF-α
IL-13TH2-cells, B cells, macrophagesStimulates growth and differentiation of B cells (IgE), inhibits TH1-cells and the production of macrophage inflammatory cytokines
IL-14activated B cellsControls the growth and proliferation of B cells, inhibits Ig secretion
IL-15T cells, activated B cellsInduces production of Natural killer cells
IL-16CD4+ T cells (Th-cells)CD4+ chemoattractant
IL-17epithelium, endothelium, otherOsteoclastogenesis, angiogenesis, increases inflammatory cytokines
IL-18Th1 cells, NK cellsInduces production of IFNγ, increases NK cell activity
IL-19 Attenuates acute ischaemic injury
IL-20 Regulates proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes
IL-21All lymphocytes, dendritic cellsCostimulates activation and proliferation of CD8+ T cells, augment NK cytotoxicity, augments CD40-driven B cell proliferation, differentiation and isotype switching, promotes differentiation of Th17 cells
IL-22 Production of defensins from epithelial cells. Activates STAT1 and STAT3 and increases production of acute phase proteins and haptoglobin in hepatoma cell lines
IL-23 Maintenance of IL-17 producing cells, increases angiogenesis but reduces CD8 T-cell infiltration
IL-24 Plays important roles in tumor suppression, wound healing and psoriasis by influencing cell survival, inflammatory cytokine expression.
IL-25 Induces the production IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, which stimulate eosinophil expansion
IL-26 Enhances secretion of IL-10 and IL-8 and cell surface expression of CD54 on epithelial cells
IL-27 Regulates the activity of B lymphocyte and T lymphocytes
IL-28 Plays a role in immune defense against viruses
IL-29 Plays a role in host defenses against microbes
IL-30 Forms one chain of IL-27
IL-31 May play a role in inflammation of the skin
IL-32 Induces monocytes and macrophages to secrete TNF-α, IL-8 and CXCL2
IL-33 Induces helper T cells to produce type 2 cytokine
IL-35 Suppression of T helper cell activation
IL-36 Regulates DC and T cell responses
IL-37 Diverse activities integrally related to the innate immune responses and inflammation
IL-38 Plays a role in chronic inflammation

Creative Biogene is the premier institution offering professional and comprehensive recombinant interleukins production services. We have years of experience to add value to your research and manufacturing. We offer the full service of manufacturing with advanced genetic tools and fermentation techniques – Escherichia coli, as one of the most studied expressing systems, has been one of the most favorite microorganisms for the production of recombinant interleukins by means of recombinant DNA technology. It is one of the most thoroughly studied and best-understood organisms in the living world because of the wealth of information on its genetics, biochemistry, and physiology. Furthermore, it is easy to culture in large amounts in economical media and multiply very rapidly. Recombinant DNAs that code for the recombinant interleukins are transferred into the recipient cells by suitable vectors for production of the recombinant interleukins, followed by the screening and fermentation process.

The services for modification of interleukin genes and optimization of expressing are also available. Prominent examples are well presented such as: Modifying the gene coding sequence and optimizing the Shine-Dalgarno sequence in the gene promoter region to increase the protein expression level significantly; Recombinant DNA technology could also be used in chiming interleukin genes with other protein genes, to express the fusion protein with activeness and/or advantages of both proteins; Point mutation could also be arranged to obtain interleukins with higher stability and biological activity.

The optimization of fermentation condition will as well be performed to ensure quality and productivity of the production. Creative Biogene dedicates in improving the manufacturing processes to offer an optimized and cost-effective treatment for the patients. Simply let us know your requirement. We will make every effort to meet your needs!

See also:

Techniques used in recombinant pharmaceutical protein

E.coli Expression System

E.coli Genome Editing 

Strain list for recombinant pharmaceutical protein production

E.coli Strain

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