The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV is an enveloped, non-segmented, positive sense RNA virus that has four main structural proteins [Spike (S)-Envelope (E)-Membrane (M)-Nucleocapsid (N)]. The spike (S) protein, a main target for neutralization antibody, is crucial for determining host tropism and transmission capacity by attraction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Generally, spike glycoprotein is functionally cleaved by the host cell furin-like protease into S1 domain and S2 domain. The S1 domain is responsible for receptor binding while S2 domain functions to mediate virus fusion in transmitting host cells.
Fig.1 Genome-wide structure and function modeling of SARS-COV-2
(The Yang Zhang Lab - University of Michigan)
Vaccine is a biological preparation that is recognized worldwide as one of the most effective ways for combating infectious diseases. Recombinant protein-based vaccines ang probiotics-based oral vaccines are new approaches to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS CoV2 and other coronaviruses of pandemic potential. Furthermore, novel strategies based on food grade vaccine formulations have been demonstrated to trigger both a systemic and mucosal immune response.
Fig.2 Food grade vaccines
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2. Criscuolo, E. , Caputo, V. , Diotti, R. A. , Sautto, G. A. , Kirchenbaum, G. A. , & Clementi, N. . (2019). Alternative methods of vaccine delivery: an overview of edible and intradermal vaccines. Journal of Immunology Research, 2019, 1-13.