Programmed cell death protein 1 (also called PD-1 and CD279), a member of the CD28/CTLA4 family, is immune checkpoint protein and inhibitory receptor for PD-L1 and PD-L2. PD-1 exerts a key role in regulating the immune system's response to the cells of the human body by down-regulating the immune system and promoting self-tolerance by suppressing T cell inflammatory activity. This prevents autoimmune diseases, but it can also prevent the immune system from killing cancer cells. Blockade of the inhibitory co-receptor PD-1 is able to active T-cell-mediated antitumor response. As a new class of drugs, PD-1 inhibitors activate the immune system to attack tumors and are used to be helpful in treat several types of cancer.
Currently, three antibody-based inhibitors targeting PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and cemiplimab) have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Nivolumab (Opdivo, Bristol-Myers Squibb) is approved to treat melanoma, lung cancer, kidney cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Nivolumab (anti-PD-1) plus ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) combination was shown to significantly enhance efficacy in metastatic melanoma, renal cell carcinoma and metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda, MK-3475, Merck), which also targets PD-1 receptors, has been approved for melanoma, HNSCC, cervical cancer, cHL, NSCLC, BC, stomach and gastroesophageal cancers, and all advanced solid tumors classified as MSI-H/dMMR. Cemiplimab (Libtayo) is approved to treat squamous cell skin cancer, myeloma, and lung cancer.
Oncolytic bacteria tumor therapy is an emerging field in the fight against cancer. Creative Biogene is a leading company offering the best microbial genome editing service. Our talented scientists have extensive experience in gene knockout, knock-in/replacement and site-directed mutagenesis. They would research closely with you to produce nanobodies—segments of antibodies—that block a molecule on cancer cells called PD-1 on immune cells.
Creative Biogene is dedicated to providing complete solutions for oncolytic bacteria genome editing to help you every step of the way in your genome editing workflow. We have expertise in gene knockout, knock-in/replacement and site-directed mutagenesis. We can do the co-research with you, and we think the result will be better with our experts working together.
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4. Wang, M., Wang, J., Wang, R. et al. Identification of a monoclonal antibody that targets PD-1 in a manner requiring PD-1 Asn58 glycosylation. Commun Biol 2, 392 (2019).