Oncolytic Probiotics Mediated Leukemia Treatment

Leukemia also spelled leukaemia, is cancer of the body's blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system. Leukemia is a group of blood cancers that usually result in high numbers of abnormal blood cells. Many types exist such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

Immunotherapy targets for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Fig.1 Immunotherapy targets for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Targeted therapies are expected to be more effective and less toxic than current treatment regimens,such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy and bone marrow transplant. The advent of small molecule-based targeted therapy has improved the treatment of both acute and chronic leukemias. Targeted therapy drugs which are generally available for leukemia are listed below.

Target Types Agent Manufacturer Start Marketing Date
CD19, CD3 DAB Blincyto Amgen 2014
BCR, ABL1 Small molecule Bosulif Pfizer 2012
Bcr-Abl Small molecule Sprycel BMS 2006
BTK Small molecule Imbruvica J&J/Abbvie 2013
PIK3CA Small molecule Zydelig Gilead 2014
Bcr-Abl Small molecule Gleevec Novartis 2000
Bcr-Abl, PDGFRB, KIT Small molecule Tasigna Novartis 2007
CD20(MS4A1) Small molecule Gazyva Roche 2013
CD20(MS4A1) mAb Arzerra GSK 2009
Bcr-Abl Small molecule Iclusig Ariad 2012
CD20(MS4A1) mAb Rituxan Roche 1997
BCL-2 Small molecule Venclexta Abbive 2016
 Ab Ultomiris Servier pharma 2018
 Ab Ultomiris Alexion pharmaceutical 2018
IDH2 Small molecule Idhifa Celgene 2017
CD123 Ab Elzonris Stemline Therautics 2018
IDH1 Small molecule Tibsovo Agios pharmaceuticals 2018
CD33 Ab Mylotarg Pfizer 2017
FLT3 Small molecule Rydapt Novartis 2017
CD22 Ab Besponsa Pfizer 2017
CD22 Ab Lumoxifi AstraZeneca 2018
UFO, FLT3 Small molecule Xospata Astellas Pharma 2018
PI3Kδ / γ Small molecule Copiktra Verastem 2018

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References
1. Napper, A. D., & Watson, V. G. (2013). Targeted drug discovery for pediatric leukemia. Frontiers in oncology, 3, 170.
2. Wolf, D. M. C. , & Langhans, S. A. . (2019). Moving myeloid leukemia drug discovery into the third dimensiondata_sheet_1.docx. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 7.
3. Pollyea, D. A. , Gutman, J. A. , Gore, L. , Smith, C. A. , & Jordan, C. T. . (2014). Targeting acute myeloid leukemia stem cells: a review and principles for the development of clinical trials. Haematologica, 99(8), 1277-1284.
4. Rashkovan, M. , & Ferrando, A. . (2019). Metabolic dependencies and vulnerabilities in leukemia. Genes & Development, 33(21-22), 1460-1474.
5. Shang, Y. , & Zhou, F. . (2019). Current advances in immunotherapy for acute leukemia: an overview of antibody, chimeric antigen receptor, immune checkpoint, and natural killer. Frontiers in Oncology, 9, 917.

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