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Cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is the prototypic immune checkpoint receptor, which play a major role in downregulation of the immune response. Expressed exclusively on T cells, CTLA-4(CD152) primarily acts to antagonize signaling of CD28, the typical second activating signal in T cells. CTLA4 transmits an inhibitory signal to thwart early T cell activation, whereas CD28 transmits a stimulatory signal for T cell proliferation and activation. T-cell expression of CTLA-4 indirectly facilitates tumor progression by restraining host antitumoral immunity. In contrast, administration of a monoclonal antibody to block CTLA-4 function can alleviate restraints on T-cell activity to promote immune-mediated tumor regression.
Therapeutic strategies targeted toward blockade of CTLA-4 signaling have been developed. Ipilimumab, as a CTLA4 blocker, is the first anti-cancer drug targeting an immune checkpoint. FDA approved Ipilimumab for the treatment of melanoma in 2010. Oncolytic bacteria tumor therapy is an emerging field in the fight against cancer. Creative Biogene is a leading company offering the best microbial genome editing service. Our talented scientists have extensive experience in gene knockout, knock-in/replacement and site-directed mutagenesis. They would research closely with you to produce nanobodies—segments of antibodies—that block a molecule on cancer cells called CTLA-4 on immune cells.
We have years of experience to meet your specific project needs in using the homologous recombination or CRISPR technology to add value to your research project. Creative Biogene offers full-service for genetic modification which has been successfully achieved in microorganisms. We can do the co-research with you, and we think the result will be better with our experts working together.
• Fast turnaround time, lower price
• higher efficiency and success rate
• Rich experience
• Markerless genome editing
• Easy selection: no selectable marker is required
1. Thompson, R. H. , Allison, J. P. , & Kwon, E. D. . (2006). Anti-cytotoxic t lymphocyte antigen-4 (ctla-4) immunotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, 24(5), 0-447.